We have many types of devices. It may be networking devices or it can be intermediary devices that present in the computer network. Let us learn about various types of devices that are present in the computer network. There are various types of devices like Repeater, the repeater comes under the layer 1 device, it can operate at the physical level of the OSI model.

The Repeater will regenerate the many signals in the specific local area network. Another type of device is Hub. The Hub is a device that is the local area network. This device also works at the physical layer. The main function it broadcast all the information it receives.

It is simple called the track of the device. Another type of networking device is the switch. A switch is the local area network device, this connects the different types of devices to the single local area network. The switch is in the layer 2 layer in the OSI model. The layer 2 layer on the OSI model is the data link layer. The data link layer stores the Mac address table. It differs from the hub and the repeater device. The unicasting is performed to send this data, it sends all the required information to the receiver side.

We have another type of network called the bridge. It is the fourth type of networking device that is present in layer 2 on the OSI layer. Layer 2 is the data link layer on the OSI model. This bridge connects to the local area network. The local area network is where all the devices are getting connected. The Bridge networking device runs with the same protocol as it can also regenerate the signals that are received from the receiver side. Normally, the bridge is the combination of both the repeater and the MAC address.

Another type of networking device is a router. the router is normally used in many homes. The router is the layer 2 device on the OSI model. The network layer is the layer 3 device on the OSI model. The router operates at the network layer that, it can forward the decisions from the sender with the help of the IP address, we can connect two or more types of the local area network. It can connect to the different local area networks and for the different types of protocols. The best example of a router connection is WI-Fi.

The router can connect many types of Technologies in it. Another type of the network is multilayer switch network. The multilayer switch works at the data link layer on the OSI model, it works to forward many of the decisions based on the MaC addresses, we also have the contemporary switch that is a type of multilayer switch or it can be called layer three switches.

The name itself indicates that the multilayer switch is the combination of the many functionalities, so it also works as the switch networking device and also has the functionalities of the router. Another type of networking device is called a brouter. We may have got a brief idea of what actually the brouter is. If you assumed the brouter as the combination of the router and the bridge then you are right. The Brouter is actually the combination of the both bridge and the router.

It can have different local area networking device segments of the same protocols. We can able to connect two or more networks using different protocols. It represents as it acts as the routers and can act as the switch. Other types of the networking device are called as the modem. Many of you have heard about modem networking devices. The term modem is represented as the modulator and the demodulator. let us know what actually the modulator and the demodulator are.

The modulator is the digital information that can carry the information to the analog signal, and the demodulator only retracts the transmitted signal. the transmitter signal we call the digital information. Let us know an example to understand the modem in detail. we know that the landlines are carrying the voice signals, it can be analog signals. we send this digital information by using the modem.

We have as last types of networking device called Firewall security. Firewall security is a type of networking device that is used to provide security for the specific local area network. Let us know an example to know in detail. When we deploy the firewall in a specific campus or to a specif network, now it packs all the packets with the help of the IP address and with the MAC address. No one wishes to display our personal information. so we use firewall settings that protect the network from any of the third-party devices.

The firewall protects all our incoming traffic and outgoing traffic and checks if any w=malicious information presents in the network. We learned many types of networking devices like router, Brouter, repeater, bridge, multilayer switch, switch, firewall security device, hub, and modem. Now let us look at the functioning of the different routers, hub switches, and all networking devices, we can connect many types of devices to a single hub. let us study the working of the network that is connected to the different types of devices.

The below figure represent the hub that is connected to the many devices, a sender can send the information to the other device receiver through a middle device called HuB. When the HUB receives the information, it repeats the same information to every port of the device. Now the receiver only takes the information and the remaining devices will discharge the information so that there will be wastage of the bandwidth in it.

The HUB uses the half-duplex that can send and receive the information at different times without causing any collisions in the network. So we use HUB as the layer 1 device that is the physical device, the HUB doesn’t need to know the knowledge of all devices addresses and it does repeat the same information in the network. We use the half-duplex so that the information cannot be sent at the same time and avoid causing collisions in it.

They don’t waste any time by sending the information to all the hosts in the network. The HUB can also act as the security free that does allow any malicious information to inject into the network. Many risks many involved in the HUB because the information is sent into every part of the device. Thus it represents, it does repeat the data so that has many security risks. Now we are using the switches instead of the HUBs in a network.Now let us know actually the functioning of the bridge in a network.

The bridge is mainly used for the shortcomings of the HUB. These are used for the segment networks for the smaller sections. The below figure 1.2 represents the devices that are connected to a bridge when the data get reaches its bridge, the bridge receives the information and will decide whether the data is authorized or not.

It checks the address of the destination information by checking the MaC address of every device. every time, the bridge receives that data, it looks for the destination address and decides to send the data to the specified device. When we learn the working of the devices in detail it is at the data link layer on the OSI model that can learn the MaC address of its specified segment and into the smaller sections.

The bridge also consists of two specific types of domains that send and receive the data to each section that is present in the network. The bridge also consists of two ports. these bridges are not used anymore as may occur collisions in them. So we replaced these bridges with switches. The switch can be a hub, a bridge that is combined into the one, it connects all the devices together, we can also know what ports are connected to the hosts.

The below figure 1.3 represents the structure of the switch connected to all the devices. The switch has the MAC address and the port that is connected to it. The HoST can send the information to another host so that the switch receives that data and can see the MaC address, the switch can ford the data from each port in a network. The main difference between the switch and the HUB is that the switch identifies the address of the opposite host and checks where actually the das being sent.

Hence the switch is the layer 2 device that can lean the MaC address. we call these addresses the layer 2 address. The switch follows the full-duplex as we can send and receive the information from the two devices at the same time, each port has its own collision domain in it, the switch works more efficiently than the HuB and the bridge and switch can save a huge amount of the bandwidth in it.