In this article I am going to share some pdf of LAN Technologies, but before that must read article on Lan Technologies below, at the end of this article I have given the download link of LAN Technologies PDF.

LAN is useful for connecting many computers or terminals which are in a geographical area which is limited or  building, it is a communication network with data. The connection can be of two types which is wired and wired-less.

IEEE 802.11 is used by the devices like Ethernet, token ring and wireless LAN.

These are some examples of LAN technologies which is standard.

There are few topologies:

1.Star topology

2.Bus topology

3.Ring topology

4.Mesh topology

5.Hybrid topology

6.Tree topology

Let us know about the Ethernet:

It is a LAN technology which is widely used, it is under IEEE standards 802.3, Ethernet will be easier and understandable and it is implemented and maintained and it will also allow the network which is of low-cost. And this is the main reason for its usability.

Ethernet will provide the flexibility by using topologies which are there, bus topology will be used by the Ethernet  and it will be operating in the two layers of the OSI model and physical layer and data link layer. The data unit of protocol is frame for ethernet  because we will be dealing with the data link layer. For handling the collision the Ethernet which is using the access control mechanism is CSMA/cd.

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The technique which is used is Manchester encoding technology.

0 will be taken by high to low transition, and 1 is taken by low to high transition.

Encoding baud rating is the bit rate’s double in both differential Manchester and Manchester encoding.

Baud rate= 2*bit rate

The network nodes will be there in Ethernet LANs and has interconnecting link or the media. They are of two types in network nodes:

Data terminal equipment (DTE):

The DTEs will convert the information of user into the signals and DTEs are called end devices. The devices of DTEs are personal computers, workstations, file servers or print servers which are also called end stations. There are source devices or destination devices of the data frames. There may be a single piece of equipment or multiple piece of equipment in the data terminal equipment which will be performing the functions which will let the users for communication. A user will be interacting with DTE user.

Let us know about Data communication equipment:

The network devices which are intermediate are DCEs and they will be receiving and forwarding frames through the network. There are standalone devices like repeaters , network switches and also routers and also have interfaces for communication units like interface cards and modems. The functions are performed by DCE like signal conversation, coding and DTEs  part or equipment of intermediate.

The operations will be defined by the data rates through optical fibers and twisted-pair cables:

Fast Ethernet:

Fast ethernet means Ethernet network which will transfer the data using the 100 Mbit/s rate.

Second is gigabit Ethernet:

It will deliver the data at the rate of 1000MB /s

10 gigabit Ethernet:

It is useful for delivering the data at the rate of 10 gb/s and it is useful for high end applications like backbones which will require data rates that are higher.


The aloha is made which is useful for providing the transmission of data between the computers in Hawaiian islands which will involve packet radios networks.

Aloha is a protocol which is of multiple access and it is presented at the data link layer. And it will tell us how the multiple terminals will be accessing the medium without having an interference and also collision.

We have two different types of Aloha’s:

  1. Pure aloha:

It has a simple implementation and it is un-slotted and also decentralized protocol. The stations will be there and they are useful for transmitting the data frames if they have need to send the data, it will not be useful for checking whether the channel is busy or not before the transmission. Sometimes when two stations or more stations are occurring simultaneously then the occurance of collision will occur and the destroying of frames happens.

And it will be expecting the acknowledgement from the receiver, when the transmission of frame happens from a station, it will be expecting for an acknowledgement from the receiver, then the station will be waiting for the random amount of time and it will be sending the frame again.

And the randomness which is going on will be helpful or avoidance of the more collisions. This is useful for all networks when there is no load. In case of large networks that are loaded then this scheme is not useful and it works poorly, then the slotted aloha will be developed.

LAN Technologies PDF below.

For making sure of pure aloha, we have to predict the throughput and also the transmission rate of the frame

So for making some assumptions:

We have to make sure that all the frames are having same length.

The frames are not generated by the stations while transmission of the      frames.

The stations population will be attempting to transmiting the new frames and also the older frames which are collided which are poisson distribution.

The pure aloha’s vulnerable period:

Let us keep assuming the frames which will be having the fixed length L, and also has the frame transmission which is constant and that is given by X=L/R.

The transmission of frames happens at t0 and also gets completed at the time t0+X.

The frame which starts at the interval t0 to t0+X they will collide.

The frames which will start the transmission in the start of X seconds and they will also collide.

The successful transmission probability will be the probability which doesn’t transmit any frames during the time of t0-X to t0+X.

The time which is vulnerable and at that time where the collision occurs will be of two times comparing to the transmission time of frames.

Second one is slotted aloha:

It is similar as the pure aloha, it will be different in the transmission way. The sender will be waiting for some time without transmitting the data at right time.

The shared channel time will be divided into slots which are discrete intervals. And these stations are useful for sending the frames at the starting itself and they will be sending only one frame per slot. when the stations cannot keep the frames at the starting on the channel of the slot it will be waiting till the another slots begins. The collision may occur if two stations transmit the data at the same time. the collisions number will be reduced by having a large margin and the performance will also become good comparing to the pure aloha.

The vulnerable time is calculated by Vt.

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LAN Technologies PDF 2


Major topics

Local Area Networks

LAN Protocol Architecture (IEEE 802
reference model)

LAN Protocol Architecture

MAC Protocols

MAC Protocols (comparison)

Major topics

LAN Standards

LAN Standards (Cont’)

IEEE 802 family

Standardized Medium Access Control

Common LAN technologies

Major Tech Points

Major topics

Ethernet Technology

A drawing of the first Ethernet
system by Bob Metcalfe

Ethernet in early daysEthernet in early days 

Ethernet History

Ethernet on the web

Ethernet Family

Ethernet Migration

Naming convention

Protocol Architecture

Media Access Methods

Media Access Control

Ethernet Address

What is a broadcast address?

How to check MAC address

MAC types

CSMA/CD (Half-Duplex)


Truncated Binary Exponential Backoff


Full-duplex MAC Types

Encoding Scheme

Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Frame

Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Frame Fields

Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Frame Fields

Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Frame Fields

Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Frame Fields

Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Frame Fields

Type names: total of 4Type names: total of 4

Packet format

VLAN Tagging

Format of:Format of:
802.3 / 802.1Q

Some Terms


Promiscuous mode


100Mbps Ethernet

Differences in 10/100M Ethernet

FLPs – 100BaseT Fast Link Pulses

Major Devices

Gigabit Ethernet Overview

Gigabit Ethernet

Migration to Gigabit Ethernet

8B/10B Encoder

GbE Standards




What does Gigabit LX and SX mean?

Optical Transmission

Gigabit in MAN Today

IEEE HSSG (10 GbE) Schedule

IEEE Goals for 10 GbE

10G Ethernet

10G Ethernet (Cont’)

GbE vs. 10 GbE



Token Ring Technology


Token ring

Topology of TR

Topology of TR

Token Ring

Token Passing Operation

Priority and Reservation

Token Ring

Data/command Frame

Token Ring MAC Frame

Token Frame

Abort Frame

Sending and Receiving

Ring Maintenance

Difference between IBM TR and 802.5


Fiber Distributed Data Interface

CDDI and FDDI Specifications

FDDI MAC Protocol

FDDI Operation

FDDI topology

Topology: physical / logical

Device type

Dual ring configuration

Recover from link failure

Recovery from node failure

Optical Bypass Switch

Frame format

Station management

Large scale deployment of FDDI
on campus network

from FDDI to higher speed network

CSMA/CD vs Token Ring

Wireless LAN – 802.11

Wireless LAN – 802.11

Other 802.11 standards

MAC in 802.11


Hidden Terminal Effect


PCF Mode

Wireless LAN Application

Characteristics of LANs

Characteristics of LANs

LAN architecture

Wiring type and distances


Example: Ethernet Throughput


LAN management

QoS issue

Security issue


Wiring issue



Wiring within building

Shared and Switched LAN

LAN trouble shooting

Maintenance Utilities

LAN applications

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