At the end of this article, I am gonna share you Mpls Network PDF but before that you must read this Important Terms on Mpls Network.

Multiprotocol label switching gives reliable connections that are useful for real-time applications, this network is expensive, this routing technique sends the data from one node to another node using the shortest path possible, it does not use long network addresses, it speeds up the traffic flows and avoids complexities in routing table, the paths are identified by the labels(virtual links) between the distant nodes, encapsulation of packets from different network protocols is done by using MPLS network so its given a name “multiprotocol”, this technique supports various technologies like ATM, DSL,T1/E1, frame relay.

MPLS is a technique and it is not a service, so delivery of packets is done from IP VPNs to Ethernet.

When an IP packet is received by an internet router, no information is carried out by the packet which is beyond the IP address of the destination.

there is no instruction for the delivery of the packets to the destination, there is no instruction for how the packets must be treated while they are being transmitted

An independent forwarding decision has to be made by each and every router which is based on the header of the network layer’s packets.

And this router must “think through” about the next destination it has to send the packet to. The router refers to the routing tables that are complex. Until the packet reaches the destination, the process will be repeated at each and every hop. The poor performance is made by all of those hops and by all of the individual routing decisions for the applications which are time sensitive and video conferencing or voice over IP(VoIP).

By using this MPLS, we can send a packet for the first time to the network, and its given to a FEC(forwarding equivalence class)   indicates that a short bit is appended in a sequence to the packet.

There is a table for each and every router about how to handle the packets which is of FEC type, when the packet came into the network, the header analysis is not performed by the routers.  Subsequent routers uses the label like an index which gives the packet, the new FEC.

MPLS network is useful for  handling the packets which has particular characteristics, which are in a consistent fashion. The packets carry voice or video which are real time traffic are mapped to low latency routes by using the network.  the labels give the idea of how to attach the additional information about the routers to each and every packet

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Let us know how multi-protocol label work, it does not have any underlying technology. MPLS was made at the time of ATM and frame relay. It is an overlay technique which is made for simplifying and improving the performance which is a part of multi-protocol.

The distant memories are ATM and frame relays, MPLS is present in carrier backbones and also in network enterprises. The use cases that are common are branch offices, campus enterprises metro-ethernet services and QoS(quality of service) which are useful for real time applications.

MPLS belongs to layer 2 or 3 service is been a confusion, it does not present in OSI seven layer hierarchy, and it is layer 2.5 sometimes. It separates the mechanisms that are forwarding and that has become the advantage for the data link service. It is useful for creating forwarding tables for a protocol.

The establishment of label-switched path(LSP) is done by using MPLS routers, it is a path which is predetermined for routing the traffic in an MPLS network, it depends on FEC criteria. LSP is also established, then MPLS is forwarded. LSPs returns  the traffic which is sent using the different LSP and it is uni-directional.

When the traffic is sent by an end-user into the MPLS network. an ingress MPLS router adds the MPLS label which is on the network edge. It has 4 sub-parts:

The label, experimental, bottom of stack, time to live.

The label: it holds the MPLS routers information for determining the forwarding of the packet destination. The label fields consists of 20 bits, so the values from 0 to 20^20-1, 1,048,575 are taken by the label, 0 to 15 bits are freed because they have a special meaning

Qos(quality of service) uses the experimental bits (three bits) for setting the priority in which the labelled packet has.

The bottom of stack(BoS) informs to the MPLS router if there are no labels and if the journey has its last leg or not and what it is to be concerned with. The router is called ingress router. There is a possibility for a network packet to have more MPLS labels, we have BoS(Bottom of stack) field which is of 1 bit useful to identify which MPLS label is at the bottom of the stack, when the label is at the bottom of the stack then the value is 1 or otherwise it has 0 value.

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Before the discarding, time to live identifies the number of hops that the packet will be able to make. It has the last 8bits and TTL is present in the IP header, the value gets decreased at each hop by 1, it will discard the packet from the stack when its value becomes 0.


The advantages of MPLS is scalability, performance, has a better bandwidth utilization, reduces network congestion and it has the better experience of an end-user.

The encryption is not provided by the MPLS, it is a private network that is virtual and it became apart from the internet, MPLS is said to be a secure transport mode. There are no denial of services, which will be effecting the pure-IP-based networks.

We have to purchase the MPLS service from the carrier and it is very expensive comparing to the public internet in which there is sending of data traffic.

It will be a difficult task for companies who wants to expand into the new markets for finding the MPLS service provider who delivers the “global coverage”. Service providers have partnership with service providers and they will make it together by using the global coverage.

The branch offices used to send the traffic to headquarters or the data centers, MPLS was designed that time and it is not useful for the world today in which the branch workers are having the access directly with the cloud.


SD-WAN is cheap, flexible, and hype and it overcomes the problems of SD-WAN. MPLS is the slow-footed dinosaur. In modern WANs both the technologies play their roles.

SD-WAN is a software application which is software defined  networking(SDN) it has a link to the WANs. SD WAN edge are having the rules and policies for sending the traffic using the best path.

SD WAN is capable of routing any type of traffic that includes MPLS and it is a traffic agnostic overlay. SD WAN is an enterprise architect, WAN traffic which is there at a central point  applies the policies using the WAN devices.

The predetermined routes of the MPLS has a provision and when the circuits are present, then the changes that are made will not be a point and click exercise.

When the deployment of MPLS network happens, the guaranteed delivery of performance is there for the traffic. SD WAN routes the traffic using the path which is efficient but when the IP comes to the open internet, then there is no performance guarantees.

At the end of this article, I have shared Mpls Network PDF download link so but before that must read this article

Offloading the MPLS traffic is the strategy that is sensible which is useful for the public internet, it uses MPLS for applications that are time sensitive and it will guarantee the delivery. People do not want to be caught in the cross-hairs if the monthly video conference of CEO’s drops off the mid-sentence with the employees

Which one is better MPLS and IP sec VPN

We are getting a low cost relatively, the fiber and fast and business internet connection. The online IT forums that are scoured, it will be difficult for not getting sucked in to the discussion about the MPLS being so expensive and it can be replaced with some fiber bandwidth internet circuits and an IPsec VPN.

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If WAN traffic has non real time applications, SD WAN has some advantages if real time is being hosted on the cloud

It has lower costs, it has increased bandwidth, it  high performance, it has more uptime, it has better performance at sites that are international, it has quick provisioning and also the rollout.

Label switching in MPLS Routing

The labels in the MPLS are switched and swapped when the packets travel using the MPLS network, the packet will come to the MPLS backbone edge, it is examined and it is classified and also given a level that Is appropriate, and it will be given to the next hop in the preset label switched path(LSP).

The difference between the carrier ethernet and MPLS is that they are having mechanism that is labelled, they have the ability because we will create the headers, virtual tunnels, ethernet virtual circuits. rich networking is the main difference between them and it is the primary difference. And it also determines how the configuration is specific for the labels or the paths.

At the end of this article, I have shared Mpls Network PDF download link so but before that must read this article

MPLS is able to control the networks and it has scalability that is greater comparing to the carrier ethernet, so both are having the advantages per bit of data in cost reduction, which is comparing to the transport mechanisms that are traditional.

They are able to complement each other, everyone wants to have carrier ethernet and MPLS by leaving the legacy software , and that is making MPLS become popular.

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