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Before discussing different networking devices let us first understand the basic structure of the OSI model. The OSI model stands for Open system for mobile communication. It is developed by the ISO. The ISO stands for International Organization for the standardization. This OSI layer is divided into many layers. It is normally divided into 7 layers. It is the combination of the different types of the network. Let us discuss each type of network and its functions.

We have different types of layers like the Application layer, presentation layer, session layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer, and physical layer. Now e have known the different types of the OSI Model. The Different types of networking devices work on the different layers of the OSI model.

Now let us know the working of each layer in the OSI model. We use the application layer, which provides access to the different resources, the next layer is the presentation layer, the presentation layer is used to translate the data, it can also be used to encrypt and for the compressing of the data. Another layer in the OSI model is the session layer.

In this session layer, it tries to establish the terminate sessions, we can also manage the terminate sessions. We have another type of layer called the Transport layer. The transport layer is used to deliver the message. The delivery of the message a process to a process that provides reliable data transmission, it also provides error recovery in the transport layer.

We have another type of layer called the data link layer, in which the data link layer provides the hop to hop delivery. It can organize the bits into the form of frames. The Data link layer is mainly used to organize the bits into the form of frames.

In the Data link layer, it is the basic functions for the hop to hop delivery and is mostly used to divide the bits into the form of frames. Layer 3 is the network layer and layer 2 is the data link layer that can transmit packets by the internetworking from the source to the destination address, the last layer and the layer one layer is the physical layer, the physical layer can transmit the bits over a physical path.

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The physical path can be a medium that can provide the mechanical and some of the electrical specifications in it. For reliable data transmission, we use the transport layer that can process the information as the process to process message delivery and used for the recovery of the errors during the data transmission.

Let us learn some of the networking devices and working of the networking devices in detail. The networking devices are mainly used because, we cannot communicate directly from device to device, so the networking devices come in to force. We use different types of Internetworking devices that help to transmit the data or information from one network or device to another network device. So we use specialized networking devices, now let us learn some of the networking devices.

Now let us know the classification of the networking devices, the networking devices can be of these devices that are classified into two different types. It can be of Networking type devices and the other one is the internetworking type devices. The networking types of devices can be again classified into two types.

They are bridges and repeaters. In the Internetworking types of devices can be divided into two types of categories. They are routers and gateways. Now let us discuss each type of networking and internetworking devices in detail. We have repeaters and bridges under the networking devices. And we have routers and gateways under the internetworking devices. There is consist of many networking devices.

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Let us discuss after knowing the brief idea about the repeaters and routers under the networking devices. Let us see some of the broad functions of the networking devices. It has functions like connecting, expanding, and separating the existing network. The networking devices are also used for remote access.

Previously we have discussed the types of the OSI model and its functions. Let us discuss some of the relations between the networking devices and the OSI layers in them. The repeater is the device that is used in the physical layer, and we use the bridge that is used in the data link layer of the OSI model. And in the networking layer, we use the internetworking device, called the router.

Three different types of networking devices are used in the OSI layers. The Gateway internetworking device is used at the application layer of the OSI model. Let us learn briefly about the repeater networking device. The repeater is also called the regenerator that works at the physical layer of the OSI model, to define in a simple way the repeater is a device but not an amplifier, it only regenerates the received signal so we call this the regenerator.

To understand in a clear way, it just removes noise from the signal that is being transmitted. If the signal is corrupted during the transmission, when it passes through the repeater, it can regenerate the signal without any corruption in it.

The difference between the amplifier and the repeater is that in the amplifier, the signal is amplified but in the repeater, the signal is cleaned by removing the voice in it. Another type of device is the bridge, the bridge is the networking device that can connect large networks into small segments, the bridge works at the data link layer of the OSI model.

The main advantage of the bridge is it can isolate and control the problems that are in the signal during transmission. The bridge checks through the physical address of the device and only forwards the specified segment that is needed. It can divide the large network into smaller segments and all are connected to the Bridge.

This works at the data link layer. Simply the bridge is a type of networking device that connects the different segments in it. It functions to isolate and to controls the links. Another type of networking device is a router. The Router is present at the network layer of the OSI model. that can be separated logically two or more number of the network segments. The router is the part of the Internetworking device.

It refers to the logical address of the devices and the routing tables that best determines the path for the data transmission. The process of routing is done in the router. It is specially used for selecting and employing the different paths from one device to another device in a network.

We can connect two or more number of the logical devices that are connected to it. the routers always use the logical address of the packets and the bridge uses the physical address of the packets, the routing tables are mainly used for knowing the best path for the data transmission.

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Coming to another type of network, we use the gateway device that works at the application layer of the OSI model. These are mainly used to connect the devices by using the different protocol systems. It can connect the two different types of the network in it.

We have many other networking devices like hub and switch. The Hub is also present at the physical; layer of the OSI model.To send any info, action from one device to the other device, the data must be transmitted into the hub and the hub sends the information to all the devices that are connected to it.

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Hub can also be divide into two types like active HUB and passive HUB. The active hub has the capacity to regenerate the signals, it can act as the multipoint repeater. Another type of hub is the passive hub, the passive hub can connect the wires that are coming from the other devices. And the Repeater, we have already discussed earlier as it can clean the signal.

The corrupted signal is get cleaned at the repeater.Similar;y Bridge is also part of the networking device that connects the different devices to it. The bridge refers to the MAC address of the specific device. Before transmission of the data or information, it checks the MAc address or physical address of that particular device.

The switch is also part of the Networking device that is used in the replacement of other networking devices. The switch works very efficiently where it connects different devices to it.

We also have different types of switch-like store and forward switch, it checks each frame before it forwarding to the other device. Another type of switch is the cut-through switch. The cut-through switch is used unto the frame forwarding address. Another type of network is called the Fragment free switch, which is used to store and forward the data.

The fragment-free switch can check the first 64 bytes of the data. These are the different types of switches that are present.

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