# Analog and Digital Signals

To understand the Analog and digital signals. Let us learn what actually the signal is ?. A signal may be data, it contains any kind of information in it. When we want to send information from one area to the other area or a network in wireless communication, the information is passed in the form of a signal.

Let us briefly understand what actually the signal is? When we send the data in a physical medium, we need to convert these signals into electromagnetic form. The data can be in the form of an analog signal and in the form of a digital signal. The analog signals may be in the form of voice and audio, the digital signals can be in the form of a text or a file or it can be any document.

When we want to transfer the signal through the physical medium, so the data can be transmitted in the form of analog and digital signals. Let us know the digital signals. The digital signals act as discrete in nature that represents and that can represent the flow of voltage.

The digital signals are used within the specific circuit of that specific computer. And the analog signal works with the continuous waveform. These analog signals are represented by continuous electromagnetic waves. Thus the transmission of the data over a physical medium can be of any form like it may be an analog signal or it may be a digital signal.

But what is the main difference between the analog signal and the digital signal? For the Old phone and telephone the data is transmitted normally through analog signals and also we have a digital signal, nowadays most users use digital signals, there is a huge change in the process of the transmission of the data from one device to the other device. The clocks can also work with analog signals, now let us know the basic difference between the analog signal and the digital signal.

To understand the process of the analog clock and the digital clock, let us take an example of the analog signal for a better understanding of its work. The analog signals vary continuously from one signal to the signal, it changes continuously irrespective of the time. So we call analog signals are the variable signals. we have many examples for analog signals like sensors. The sensors have a continuous change in the voltage.

Coming to the digital signal, the digital signal can be represented by the physical number. The numbers can be any number from 0 to 9. The same concept is applied in digital electronics, the digital electronics are represented only with the fixed number of the signals like 0 and 1.

The digital signals can work at both high levels and at the low level. It means that it can work with the 0 voltages and it can works at maximum voltages in it. Hence the digital signal uses different types of technology called transistor technology.

Transistor technology is being used in the digital signal. And the area that we define between the low voltage and the high voltage is called the Undefined area. The digital value always needs a specified signal called the undefined region.

The key difference between the analog signal and the digital signal is that the analog voltages can change continuously whereas the digital signals are get fixed. Now let us learn briefly about the analog signal and the working of the analog signal, the electronic signal only varies from the voltage and its time. We call analog signal analog only.

As we have taken the clock as an example, the clock consists of three hands, the hour hand, the minute hand, and the seconds hand. These say as we can define the time in hours or in minutes or in seconds.

But in the digital signal, we represent the hour and minutes, we cannot know what actually inside the digital signal, we have certain levels in the digital signal, suppose the time can be 10:20 or it can be 10:21, but it doesn’t actually cannot show the between time in 20 to 21.

The digital signal does not allow the intermediate level, but the analog is different, we can see the seconds and minutes in the analog clock, it can show every value in the analog signal.

The below graph represents the analog graph, the y axis represents the plot or it can be a graph for the specified temperature, when we clearly observe the graph, it actually gets changing for every second in the group, we allow all types of intermediary values in the analog signal. so the analog signal can take any value that is present in the given limit.

Now let us talk about digital electronics, digital electronics can be represented with voltage and time. As we have said earlier, the digital signal is discrete in nature. But what is discrete? The discrete signal that we define for the specific interval of the time signal, is simply a signal that is defined for the discrete number of intervals. in a time.

As in the analog graph, it represents the discrete-time signal that can analyze the time. The discrete-time signal only says the time that we required or necessary. We eliminate the unnecessary signals and the portions. We also have the different temperatures for the different discrete values. different value of the function is available at different regions. We can discrete both the time and the magnitude in it.

The magnitude access can be divided into many fixed numbers of the sizes that can take equal values at each level of the signal. For the digital signal, it is necessary to discretize the magnitude axis in it. we have the different time access at different intervals in it.

To discretize the magnitude let us take a simple example when we are trying to measure the temperature in Fahrenheit or it can be celsius, now e measure this temperature at different parts like t1, t2, t3, t4, and at last to TN. The noted point in the digital signal discretization is, it should have a different number of levels with the same value in it. Let us know the brief overview in the analog and in the digital signal.

The things we see Hear all come under the analog signal. All they see and hear can be in the form of analog signals. The analog signals can carry a certain amount of energy. Suppose we use some amount of the voltage which is in the smooth and in a continuous manner.

The analog signal can be smooth and it should be continuous, we call these the analog waves. It consists of the infinite number of voltages between the range in the analog signal. When we see the graph of the digital signal, it actually different from the analog signal. The digital signal looks smooth and consistent, but it actually varies in different ways. We can see the discrete values in the range of the digital wave signal, We can see the infinite number of values in the discrete values between the two-point of range.

The value in the digital signal is represented in the form of 0’s and 1’s. The below figure 1.1 represents the signal that passes and represented through the digital form. The transmission in the digital signal can have the 0’s and 1’s in it. We can convert these analog signals into the form of digital signals. The main advantage of the analog signal is we can take any value in the range of the given time in the analog signal.

The main advantage of the digital signal is we can represent these digital signals with the discrete set of values in it. In the analog signals, the signals can become weaker and in weaker as it travels, there can be the chance to occur many kinds of changes in it. Many kinds of interfaces occur. In order to make the analog signals active, we use an amplifier.

The amplifier is used to increase the voltage. As it increases the noises and the interfaces, the amplifier also makes some types of noises in it. Same as the analog signal, the digital signal can also use a different type of device called the digital regenerator. It is mainly used to boost the signal that is weakening after reaching a certain distance. The digital regenerator is also called the digital repeater.

This repeater can use the entire digital signal and has the ability to reconstruct them to their original quality, these digital regenerator can also remove many of the noises in it. As we said earlier we can convert the analog signals into a digital signals. The PCM is the method that we use to convert an analog signal into the form of a digital signal. The PCM stands for pulse code modulation, we use the different steps and procedures in the pulse code modulation that can convert analog signals to the form of the digital signals.