Computer Memory PDF

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

We all know that a computer works based on the I/O cycle. In a simple method, the input we give, the process, and the output that gets. To understand clearly, let say the user gives the input to the system and the given input processed by the processor, and the processed data is given as output.

Different devices perform different operations in the computer, and the input device gives the input to the computer, the processing device processes the required result for the given input. and the output devices display the output. But how the data get processed? Where was this data stored in the computer?.

In Order to store the information in the computer system. we require another device called the storage device. The computer must use the storage memory to store the information. These devices we call the storage devices. We all know, the computer only understands the binary language called 0’s and 1’s. The set of all eight bits combination of them both 0’s and 1’s are called the bytes.

Every symbol, operator word has its own binary code in it. It is difficult to understand the language of the computer. so to avoid this problem, there are some components which to translate the binary code into user understandable language. Now, let us know the capacity of the storage device of the computer.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

we have different types of memory sizes in the computer, we have some of the units to measure the memory in the system. We have the memory sizes in bytes, kilobytes, Megabytes, Terabytes, Petabytes, Exabytes, Zettabytes, and Yottabytes. We also have different kinds of memory in the computer system.

Typically, we have two types of memory like primary memory and secondary memory. The primary memory is also called the internal memory and the secondary memory is also called the External memory. The primary memory is the main memory in the system.

The primary memory is again divided into two types lie RAM and ROM. RAM stands for “Random access memory” and the ROM stands for “Read Only Memory”. The Secondary memory can store the information permanently in it. It is the permanent storage memory, For example, hard disk, SSD, pen drive, CD, discs, DVD, and many more. Let us understand each type of the devices individually.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

In primary memory, we have RAM. RAM stands for random access memory, it stores the information temporarily and all the information gets disappears once the process is getting done. So the random access memory is also called temporary storage memory.

The best example for primary memory is MS paint, if the system gets off without saving the editings you need, then the drawings you have done on the MS paint gets disappear instantly after the system gets turned off. Another type in the primary memory is the Read-only memory, the read-only memory can store the data permanently, once the information stored in the memory, it can get changed further.

The best example for secondary memory is a program to start the system, a program to shut down a system, etc. There is much permanent storage memory in the system. Let us discuss some of the permeant storage memories in the computer system. One of the Examples is a Hard disk. the hard disk is the fixed permanent storage memory, it is getting fixed in the computer system. Once any file is get saved in the primary memory, the information is immediately copied to the secondary memory like a hard disk.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

We can also store in any other secondary storage memories. The harddisk is again divided into two types like Internal Hard disk and External Hard disk. Another permanent storage memory is a solid-state drive, it works similar to the hard disk but works faster than the hard disk the SSD also can be divided into two types.

There are an Internal hard disk and an external hard disk with a capacity of 128 GB to 2 TB. We have a high booting system when we install the operating system in the SSD. The SSD stands for a solid-state drive that works faster than the hard disk. The solid-state drive has cost expensive than the hard drive.

The other example of permanent storage is a pen drive. The pen drove can be referred to as the small portable device that stores the information permanently. The pen drive can also be called the flash device acts as the permanent data storage. The pen drive is easy to use as we can carry the pen drive anywhere. The pen drive can have a storage capacity of TB.

There are many more storage devices like CD, DVD, BD. All these devices are portable in nature but have different storage capacities. There is one more storage device called the data card. we might have a brief idea about what is a data card is. The data card can normally be used in cameras, tablets, mobile phones, etc.

It is also called a smart card. Another most known permanent storage is cloud storage, nowadays many companies preferring to store the data in clouds, the data can be stored in the cloud. All the files documents and any personal information can be stored in the cloud storage.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

The data can be stored in remote servers through the internet. The best examples for cloud storage are google drive, dropbox, etc. The main advantage of using cloud storage is, we can access the data and at any time anywhere. Everything stored in the computer memory can be in the form of bits.

All the files and programs consist of the millions of bits in it and get processed through the central processing unit. Always there be a struggle in storing and managing the huge data of the users, so we use different types of memory storage like short term memory and long term memory, the short term memory can be used to store the data that need to be executed where the long term storage is used to store the data permanently as we discussed above.

When we run a program in the computer system, the operating system allocates space in the short term memory to execute instructions in it. When we click a button to download a particular file in the operating system, the CPU will access the information present at that particular file to retrieve the information from the file. The time that takes to perform these operations is called memory latency.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

For the process of the execution, we use short term memory storage so that the information can be accessed quickly. so we called the short term the random access memory. Each Random access memory consists of a tiny transistor a memory in it that stores the data in the form of 0’s and 1’s. It can also consist of another RAM called the static RAM. The static RAM acts as the high-speed internal memory cache.

Static RAM is shortly called the S-RAM that consists of six interlocked transistors in it. It works as the fastest memory in the computer system and very expensive. It can hold the data only when the system power is gone. to store permanently, we have to store the data in the permanent storage device.

The storages like magnetic storage, optical-based storage, and solid-state drives. Magnetic storage is the cheapest storage, the data can be stored in the magnetic pattern on a spinning that coated with the magnetic film.

The disc should rotate where the data is located. We also have optical-based storage like DVD and Blue-ray uses the spinning disks with the reflective coating on it. In the optical storage, the bits are encoded in the form of dark and light spots, that can be read by the laser. Optical storage is the cheapest than optical-based storage and has slower latencies than magnetic storage with a lower capacity.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

Another type of storage is Solid-state drives SSD. The SSD’s are the newest and the fastest of the other storage device types. There doesn’t have any of the moving parts in it and uses the transistors by storing the bits in the form of the elctric charges.

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The computer memory can degrade very quickly, the heat generated from the device can lead to degrading or demagnetizes the hard drives. T may also lead to leakage. The solid-state drives have the additional weakness. The continuously writing of the floating gates may make them work less. The data that lives on the storage media will have less life expectancy than the other storage devices.

This is an overview of Computer Memory PDF, if you want to read full article in best quality in pdf, we have provided download link below.

Many scientists are trying to improve the memory devices to work faster and with more durable. The memories can play the same role as all the different types of storage devices, but only differs the implementation for the various types of storage devices. Every computer memory can take the input in the form of bits. It can also be called binary digits. We can switch data between the two possible states for the possible values 0’s and 1’s.

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