A Mesh Topology is a connection of multiple hosts to a single host. It is connected in the point to point representation, a single host connected to all hosts in the network. The Mesh topology hosts work as a relay to the neighboring hosts that do not have a direct point-to-point connection.

There are multiple types in a mesh topology. let us discuss the introduction of each types.

  1. Full Mesh Topology
  2. Partial Mesh Topology

Let further discuss in detail these two types of Mesh Topology.

The connection between all the hosts is called the ethernet. One host relays for the other host. To understand in detail, let us take an example, if one host misses or breaks the connection to the other host, the neighboring hosts give support to carry the information from one host to the other host.

The below figure represents the connection between the mesh topology, every single host connected to all other neighboring hosts.

working of mesh topology

From the figure, the connection between the two hosts missed or broken, then the neighboring host takes the work assigned to A and carries the information from Host C to Host A.

The more number of hosts, the more number of connections are maintained, more further communication is path established between the hosts. And the complexity of the communication raises.

If the connection is maintained between the different bunch of computers and a distinct number of hosts, the maintenance of the topology is a cost expensive process. The Mesh topology is cost-expensive, if more number are cables are connected to the single host. Set of different paths, and connections generate more data communication and have a lot of built-in protection in the topology.

The Mesh Topology is mainly supported in Wide Area Network and Metropolitan Area Network.

How does the Mesh topology Work

To understand in detail the procedure of mesh topology, let us first discuss the usual process of the network connection. Commonly, all the devices, Computers, routers connected in usual network connection like the end to end connection, router to the server, and vice versa.

A Single Server connected to different client servers, hosts, and remote users. Where in Mesh Network, the connection is quite different from the usual network connection.The devices in a network connected to all the other networks in a Device. The Devices also be known as nodes or Hosts in a network.


This Nodes or devices send data to the other nodes within the range. The data moves from one node to the other node until it reaches its destination device. These devices or nodes can send the data in many forms as long as it attains the correct destination node.  The connection to these nodes is connected through the wireless routers, similar to the network we use at home.

However, Mesh topology should behave differently than the common internet connection. The Mesh Topology not only sends the data from sender to receiver but also find the efficient path to transmit the data. The Devices who accomplish this process is called the Routing protocol.

A Routing protocol is a set of rules coded into the nodes that use a global or local plan to find the efficient path from the sender to the receiver.

It uses various protocols and algorithms to find the best path to end the data from the sender to the receiver. OLS, HWMP algorithms are used to forward the data around the mesh. These data create network traffic that sometimes influences the data congestion in the topology.

The Mesh Topology is used to share the network connection. Nevertheless, Many of the Mesh networks doesn’t involve a Large internet connection. The Mesh networks use their servers to transfer the data. Due to the utilization of their own servers, the users can communicate and exchange information within the Mesh network connection. There is no need the use larger network connections

The Mesh topology has many properties and algorithms to obtain an efficient path and performance

  • The Mesh Network is also called self-healing as it finds multiple ways to transmit the data across the mesh topology. It finds its path as long as the network functions.
  • These are self-discovering and configuring, When new nodes enter into the mesh network, it automatically integrates these nodes. The transmission path of these nodes is inexpensive. These nodes are built with wireless routers which are very inexpensive.

Examples in Mesh Topology

Let’s take the significant real-world examples to understand in detail in working of Mesh topology :

Commercial Applications :

Some of the mesh access points combine the mesh principles along with the Wi-Fi nodes to afford commercial enterprises in metropolitan areas.

They provide the ability to their entire operation through the one access point. This allows them to expand the capacity of their network.

Civic Application

Civic applications provide laptops to children with low power, internet connection, and in-expensive. It connects the mesh network topology.

It successfully checks the mesh network connection with a speed of 5 megabytes per second. It provides long-distance communication without any internet connection.

The Mesh Network connection can helpful during emergencies for basic telecommunications.

Roads & Streetlights

All the street lights, firefighters, police cars are used the Mesh topology connection. It remains unchanged and provides the Internet. The police car lights continue unaffected and always connected to the network yet while moving. The firefighter’s light connected to the network, care lights Home automation like sensors, wireless Tv connections are run based on the Mesh topology network.

The main use of the Mesh topology is, we can communicate to our neighboring devices in any emergencies.

Building & Home Monitorings

Home automation is a mesh topology connection. snapping of lights On & off, switching Fan On and Off, wireless gadgets, kitchen appliances, etc all come under the Mesh topology connection. The maintenance of large buildings, hospitals, hotels are quite an expensive process. But, using the Mesh network, we can determine it in a cost-friendly approach.

Medical Fields

The Mesh networks help to expand the range and make it easy to monitor and control the temperature and health conditions of the patients.

Mesh in Military appliances

The Military applicants help in monitoring the military weapons and keep communication within the soldiers for larger distances.

Automatic Readers

Reading the temperature, electric bill, gas meter are connected based on the mesh network. Nowadays, we can provide the networks within the affordable range.

Security Services

Using Mesh Network, we can check as security appliances by monitoring the people’s entry and exit.

BroadBand connections

We all know the broadband connections. Nowadays, every home network connected through broadband connections. Wi-Fi is an example of broadband connections. The mesh topology can be used as broadband connections and also can provide other services. If a Wired connection isn’t available, we can connect through a Mesh Network.

Mesh in Environmental

Weather conditions, level of pollution, and other environmental conditions can be tracked and monitored. All Environmental sensors get tracked through the Mesh Network.

Different Types Of Mesh Topology

As we have mentioned, nodes in the mesh topology connected to all the neighboring nodes in the Network. The topology is a structure that connects all the nodes in the Network. It arranges different nodes in a Mesh topology. One node in the Mesh Network helps the other nodes if the connection between two nodes missed or broken.

There are different types in the Mesh topology. As we have discussed earlier. Those are:

  1. Full Mesh Topology
  2. Partial Mesh Topology

Full Mesh Topology

Full Mesh Topology

In this Topology, all the hosts are connected to all hosts in the mesh network. We can determine the number of nodes that are connected to each host. For every node n*(n-1)/2 nodes are connected in the Network. The Full Mesh Topology is mainly used due to cost-effectiveness and eliminates redundancy in the network.

In Full Mesh Topology, all the host nodes are connected to every single node in the network. If One Host breaks the connection then data is handled by the next corresponding Host to transmit the data to the receiver side.

The below diagram represents the Full Mesh Topology. Every host is connected to all nodes in the network.

Partial Mesh Topology

Partial Mesh Topology

In Partial Mesh Topology. Not all the nodes are connected to every node in the Network. The Nodes are connected in an arbitrary form.

In a wired Mesh topology, the cost moves swiftly as the number of connections increased rapidly. whereas in a wireless network, low-cost topology is maintained compared to the wired network.

The below diagram represents the Partial Mesh Topology. In this, not all the nodes are connected to every Host.

Types of Network Topology

There are various types of topologies. Let us discuss one by one in detail

  1. Bus Topology
  2. Ring Topology
  3. Tree Topology
  4. Start Topology
  5. Mesh Topology

Bus Topology

There is a physical and logical connection in the topology. In physical we can see the structure of how the nodes are connected, but in logical it refers to how nodes are connected.Bus Topology

In Bus Topology, there is no central device to connect the different nodes. The bus topology is also referred to as the daisy chain topology. If information is sent by one node, that information goes to the bus topology and gives a copy of data to each and every node in the bus. But only the receiver end accepts the data and the remaining nodes just ignore the message.

The below figure represents the bus topology :

Ring topology

Ring Topology

In-Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected in the circular form. In a Ring topology, there is no termination in the network. The data flows continuously from one node to the other node. Every node reads the data and forwards the message to the neighboring nodes until the data reaches the destination host.

The Ring and bus topologies are cost-effective and easy to control

The below diagram represents the Ring Topology where all the hosts are connected in a closed network.

The main drawback in a ring topology is, the entire network gets break down even if a single host gets disconnected and the maintenance of ring topology is difficult.

Start Topology

Star Topology

Star Topology has both the advantages of bus and ring topology All the nodes are get connected to a central device called a switch or hub.

The below diagram represents the digram for start topology. Despite this, the network get crashes if the central device gets affected.

Hybrid Topology

Hybrid topology

It the combination of physical and logical topology. It has two hybrid ring topologies.

  1. Star Bus topology
  2. Start Ring Topology

Star Ring Topology: The name itself represent the type of topology. It is the combination of both star topology and Ring topology. The physical star topology and logical Ring topology is used in Hybrid topology. Let us know in detail about what is star physical topology and logical mesh topology.

For example, When host A sends a message to host B in Star-Ring topology, The data moves into the central device and moves in the ring electronically till it finds the connection to the destination node. In Start Bus topology it is the combination of physical start and logical bus topology. The data moves into the central device. Many of the Local Lan topologies use the logical bus topologies.

The below diagram figure represents the Hybrid Topology. It is the combination of both start and ring topology.

Wired Mesh Topology

A Mesh Topology is the network where every node is connected to every other node either in the wired or wireless network. Let us learn in detail about the wired network.

The Wired networks connect one device to the other device. The most common topology we use is a star topology. In Start Topology, all the nodes connect toa cental device. To send data, it should pass through the central device. The main advantage of a star topology, if one node gets affected it doesn’t affect the other node and the data is transmitted normally. The connection in the start network remains the same.

But if the central device fails, all the nodes connected to it get affected. This is called a single point of failure. The wired network has a higher performance than wireless networks.

Wireless Mesh Topology

Mesh Network is a topology where multiple nodes are connected to all other nodes in wireless networks. In a wireless network connection, each node has at least two node connections. The Mesh network is created to avoid redundancy and for a strong network. This wireless Topolopy is scalable in nature.

To understand the wireless mesh network, first, we need to know about the two types of mesh networks. Partial Mesh network and full Mesh Network.

In a wireless network, different paths are present to transfer the data from one device to the other device. If one node breaks in between the transformation of data, it takes another path to transfer the information to the destination address. It has low power consumption. Bluetooth is an example of a wireless network. It operates with low power consumption and operates within the 2.4GHz. Zigbee also comes under the wireless network with the low power consumption of 2.4GHz

There are numerous benefits in wireless Mesh topology :

The Internet of things holds the wireless mesh topology. It benefiting multiple organizations, and people and to find the environmental conditions using the sensors.

Most of the networks in today’s world are using the start network connection. Every device directly connects with the base station or a central device for communication.

The Mesh Network ensures a strong network connection between the devices even in challenging environmental conditions. When new nodes enter the network, it immediately checks for a reliable connection for a powerful network connection.

Features in Mesh Topology

Mesh Topology maintains a point-to-point connection between every node in the network.

It can connect in both wired and wireless networks. The main feature of the Mesh network is, we can use use the Internet in any environmental conditions. It mostly helpful in emergencies, we do not need to search for a large network connection.

In emergency services, the mesh network tracks the data from the sensors and to check the weather and environmental conditions.

It hugely helpful in the military fields. It maintains communication among the soldiers, maintains and monitors the military weapons by sensors.

The Wireless Mesh Network widely helpful in the Internet of things (IoT) in the frame of networks.

Bus topology, mesh topology start topology and hybrid topology all come as wired Mesh Network topology.

All the wireless mesh networks hold the Internet of things to detect the sensors and to maintain wireless communication.

Advantages in Mesh Topology

  1. In Mesh Topology, if one host connection gets disconnected, it doesn’t affect the neighboring hosts.
  2. The Mesh topology has dedicated links so that the data is transmitted only in a fixed path.
  3. It is robust in nature, One node doesn’t disturb the neighboring node.
  4. The Mesh Topology maintains high security is maintained between the sender and receiver within the mesh network
  5. In making an easy process for the troubleshooting.
  6. In Mesh Network, we do not need to wait for a large area network.
  7. It maintains a point to pint link between the other device.
  8. The Mesh topology has a high data transmission rate.

Disadvantages in Mesh Topology

  1. more no of cables and Input-output ports are present
  2. The hardware connection in the network is difficult and most expensive.
  3. The installation and re-configuration process is difficult.
  4. As the number of nodes increases, the communication in the network increases which costs maintenance.
  5. Mesh Networks are implemented only in a limited manner.
  6. For example, the connection between the offices is connected to every regional office.

Mesh Topology Vs Star Topology

Mesh Topology :

  • In Mesh Topology has a dedicated link. It has a point to point connection to all the nodes
  • The Mesh Tolopoloy is more expensive than the start topology.
  • The mesh topology requires more cabling and input-output ports.
  • It ensures more privacy and security in the network
  • In this fault identification and fault, isolations are difficult.
  • If more nodes are present, the installation process will be difficult.
  • The maintenance cost is difficult in a mesh topology.

Star Topology :

  • The star topology has a dedicated point to point link connected to the single central device.
  • The star topology is less expensive than the mesh topology.
  • It requires less cabling and input-output ports.
  • There is no guarantee of security and privacy at the start of topology.
  • In Start Tolopgy, Fault identification is easier than in mesh topology.
  • Due to the central device, the installation process is easier.

Summary of Mesh Topology

In the  Mesh Topology, the connection between the single node to the multiple nodes. A single host can be connected to multiple hosts. The device can be called the node, host. There are two types of connection in the mesh topology, wired connection, and wireless connection.

The examples of the wired connection are bus topology, mesh topology, star topology, and hybrid topology.  Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, sensors, etc all these come under the wireless Mesh network. It has a high data rate transmission.

There are two types of topology, full mesh topology, and partial mesh topology. In full mesh topology all the nodes are connected to every node in the network, In partial topology, not every host is connected to the other hoists in the network.

The main advantage of the mesh topology is, each node in the network doesn’t disturb the other node. In any connection, loss occurs it doesn’t affect the remaining nodes of the network.

In all the military appliances, home automation, environmental conditions, buildings control can track with the help of sensors and all the commercial applications, home monitoring, firefighters use the mesh topology Network.

Second Explanation of Mesh Topology

Mesh topology is a network counting as an entire single unit, without any hierarchical structure. The mesh topology or the mesh network is also called a mesh net. In this network structure, some nodes are allowed to have several paths connecting them to each and every other node, this type is called the partial mesh topology and they may consist of strange and bizarre shapes because a set pattern for its’ structure is not designed. To know more about the Mesh Topology Advantages and Disadvantages, keep reading this article till the end.

Not necessarily all the nodes are connected to each other directly and that spare us the heightened expense we are handed over in the full mesh network. One more benefit of partial mesh is it reduces redundancy.

In some cases, each and every one of the nodes is allowed the privilege of having a direct and separate path connecting them to each other, this structure is considered to be the full mesh network. Point to point connection between every node makes it costlier than its’ sibling. Which is why full mesh network topology is usually reserved for the backbone networks.

This topology can be of both wired and wireless types.

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  1. As each of these nodes or devices have access to the paths, mesh topology succeeds in managing the network traffic. Multiple devices transmit data at the same time and the flow of the data can continue without restraint.
  2. There is no hub in this network which makes it immune to breakage and transmission of data need not be stopped if one device breaks or shut down since the responsibilities and functionality are equally shared by all the nodes.
  3. Security is on the top in this network and then you can be assured your privacy is not threatened when you are using mesh topology.
  4. Multiple paths and links ensure the error is detected and corrected in which point to point connection also helps.
  5. Not having a central hub actually helps structure. System doesn’t stand still even during the procedure of expanding the network.


  1. A lot of wiring and cables are needed for the setup and an equivalent amount of ports.
  2. Installation is a difficult and complicated procedure because of the structure and connecting all nodes to each other is mind boggling.
  3. Wire and cables, the maximum amount of point to point connections, strange to grasp structure, high amount of data transmission and provision to provide resources for that make it a lot more expensive than any other network topology.
  4. Apart from being costly, maintenance and even administration is difficult.

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