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A computer system will perform many operations and it used many devices in different ways for solving problems. It will have a computing environment in which many computers will process and communicate with each other for performing the operations and handles many issues.

There are different types of computing environments:

1.personal computing environment

2. time sharing computing environment

3.client server computing environment

4. distributed computing environment

5.cloud computing environment

6. cluster computing environment

Personal computing environment: there is only one computer system, and the processes are present in that computer and are executed in that system. The devices which are of personal computing environment are laptops, mobiles, printers, computer systems, screens etc.

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Time sharing computing environment: multiple users can use the system simultaneously. Time slice is provided for each and every user and the processor will switch accordingly to every user There will be a belief that each user will have, that he’s only using the system.

Client server computing environment: the client will request for a resource and the server will respond and will also provide the resource. Many clients can be served by the server at the same time and also a client can be in contact with one server only. The communication between the client and server happens through compute network and sometimes they will only be present in the same system.

Cloud computing environment: the individual computers will have computing far away to a cloud computers which are in cloud computing environment. Only the service that is provided is seen by the users and not the internal details like how the service is being provided. All the computer resources are pooled and then managed by using a software.

Cluster computing environment: it is same as parallel computing environment because they both will have many CPUs. A big difference is that cluster computing environment consists of 2 or more computer systems which are combined together and they will work together parallelly.

Distributed computing means the computers which are distributed autonomously are communicating over the network. Distributed computing systems are different from parallel computing systems or shared memory systems, in which many computers will share the memory pool that is common and it is useful for communicating with processors. Multiple computers are used distributed memory systems because they are necessary to solve the problems.

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The connected computers use computation and message-passing for communicating with the nodes. In grid computing, the nodes are belong to different domains it is also a form of distributed computing systems.

Distributed computing is used in between the data and metadata by storage visualization solution by network-based systems. Even well known problems must be solved by creating new algorithms so to make this burden easier on the programmers, conversion of parallelizing compilers sequential programs to distributed message programs must be existed. Especially for distributed SMP (Symmetric multiprocessor) clusters.

Different types of computations are involved in distributed computing in which nodes will perform so many computations in which few may perform very small computations and others may also do visual graphics processing.

The scalable programs that are efficient is possible to be designed is the main advantage of using distributed systems. They are independent processes and they work on nodes which are different and they will work only for exchanging the results occasionally.

SaaS applications are utilized by thin clients to cloud-hosted services that offloads the computations IaaS and PaaS solutions are provided by the vendors and also uses the distributed computing which will provide the platform and infrastructure that is scalable and highly cost effective.

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Advantages and challenges of distributed systems:

Horizontal scalability: the computing is easy and inexpensive because the computing will happen on each node independently, which will add to extra nodes and the functionalities are needed.

Reliability: distributed systems are made up of nodes which will work together and they are fault-tolerant, there will be no disruptions in the systems generally even if one system fails.

Performance: the load of work may be broken and also sent to many different machines so these distributing systems are efficient.

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And there are also many challenges with distributed systems: complex architectural design, process of debugging and also construction which are useful for creating a distributed system which is effective that can be overwhelming.

Scheduling: the distributed systems will know and tell us which system has to run which system has to take up the jobs and where they have to run scheduling will tell all these operations and also have limitations which will lead to hardware problems.

Latency: there will be more latency experiencing with communications when the systems are used widely. And it will lead to tradeoffs that happens in availability and consistency and latency.

Observability: processing, gathering presenting and monitoring the hardware is a complex challenge.

Resilience: distributed computing systems will copy the information over all the servers of the computer to make sure that there is no failure. If a computer fails and then it will copy the data on that computer and are stored somewhere in the computer so that the data is not lost.

Cost effectiveness: distributed computing systems are cost effective which means they are of less cost and hardware commodity and make deployments and cluster expansions which is very economical.

Let us understand distributed computing in cloud computing:

The distributed systems are made more accessible by the users when there is a growth in cloud computing. The distributed systems will use the available computing resources quickly which is done by the distributing computing software. before there used to be DBAs( database administrators) who will link the resources of computing over the network and also across the data centers which will be useful for sharing the resources. The cloud vendors will add the servers to the clusters which is useful for storing and computing performance.

This is making the works easier, new computing services will be coming which will enable the agility to greater levels and also the elasticity and the clustered systems can be expanded or compressed which is dependent on the load of work needs and this happens easily.

In this, a problem will be divided into sub problems and then they are solved by one or more components of the system and each and every computer will communicate with each other for sharing the information and handles the problems.

Grid computing and distributed computing:

Grid computing consists of big numbers of computers that are connected for solving a complex problem in distributed architecture .

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Independent tasks are run by servers and personal computers in grid computing and they are linked in the internet loosely by using the internet or low speed networks computer’s processing time will be at a service of large problem which are allowed by individual participants.SETI is the largest grid computing project computer owners will be volunteering multitasking cycles to the SETI(search for extraterrestrial intelligence). Thousands of PC’s are sued by computer-intensive problems which are useful for downloading and searching the radio telescope data.

Grid computing is same as distributed computing, the model are characterize by the SETI project based on distributed computing.in cloud computing , the hosted services are available to the users from the remote location and it is distributed computing which depends on who you will ask.

Breaking of the cryptographic code is the first use of grid computing and it is known as distributed.net. the group is known as distributed computing.

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Difference between cloud computing and distributed computing:

Cloud computing:

It will provide IT resources and services on demand like storage, database, networking and analytics and also software etc. over the internet. Users will get the hosted services which are delivered by the cloud computing over the internet. The services that are provided by the cloud computing are hardware, software, networking resources over internet, it also provides shared pool of resources on demand etc.

There are four types of cloud computing:

  1. Public cloud
  2. Private cloud
  3. Community cloud
  4. Hybrid cloud

Distributed computing is of 3 types:

  1. Distributed computing systems
  2. Distributed information systems
  3. Distributed pervasive systems.

Distributed information systems are trend to users of the computers. It will implement one set of logical functions through many number of devices and each device will perform some amount of processing in the processing which is of total amount. It consists of distributed databases. Data elements that are stored in different locations are related with each other, and also the processes which are stired at some other location also can access this. Distributed information systems consists of information systems, data management system, database management system engines, parallel and distributed DBMSs.

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Distributed pervasive systems are useful for distributing the computing and big data from mobile networking and communications. It consists of embedded microprocessors which allows for communicating the information. It is also called as ubiquitous computing. It means that existing everywhere, these systems are connected and are available consistently and totally.

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Any device from apparel to the kitchen appliances, every device can be embedded consisting of chips which are very tiny like micro size and connects all these devices to a network which is boundless.

Unobtrusive environment is created by the pervasive computing with internet which is integrated and has good connectivity.

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